Access to CDHCS's collections is by special appointment only. For more information or to make an appointment, please contact Dr. Dorothy Dechant, Curator at 415.929.6627 or ddechant@pacific.edu. Our complete policies and information can be found below.

The Atkinson Collection contains over 2400 accessioned human skulls, crania and mandibles. The majority of these individuals were acquired by Dr. Spencer R. Atkinson, an eminent orthodontist and craniofacial researcher, from 1919 to 1963. The University of the Pacific received his private collection in 1963. Subsequent additions have resulted from the dental school's human gross anatomy course during the early 1990s. More recently, a number of dental school alumni have donated skulls that they had purchased from biological supply houses during their dental school days.

The Center for Dental History and Craniofacial Study (CDHCS) makes every effort to ensure the continued security and preservation of donated skulls. Museum-quality cabinets and archival-quality trays house the Atkinson Collection. Specimens are handled minimally. During research studies involving examination of the skulls, curator assistance is mandatory.

Acquisition Guidelines

  1. Skulls donated to CDHCS must be recognizable as originally purchased from a biological supply house (i.e., specimen obviously prepared under laboratory conditions, with tissue removal, degreasing, and bleaching having resulted from standardized preparation techniques) or designated as non-Native American in ethnicity. Subsequent to receipt of a specimen, CDHCS staff may request a 30 day examination period if the specimen's derivation seems questionable.
  2. All acquisitions are to be outright and unconditional. Skull donations must be made with the understanding that, while the donor's preference may be taken into consideration, CDHCS staff will determine whether to accession the specimen into the main research collection or into the smaller teaching collection. This determination will be based on the unique features of the individual as a potential research or teaching asset.
  3. Federal law prevents CDHCS from providing identification services or appraisal values for donated skulls. Donors are responsible for appraisals of value. Please contact biological supply houses or internet companies specializing in human osteological remains to determine approximate values. CDHCS is in no way affiliated with these organizations.

Accession Process

Accession Record

Upon receipt, the donation will be examined and described for accessioning purposes in an Accession Record. The donor will receive a copy of the Accession Record containing the following:

Acquisition information: date recorded, CDHCS recorder's name, method of delivery of specimen to CDHCS;

  • Donor information: donor's name, address, phone number and email address;
    Donation information: description of specimen, documentation relating to specimen, accession number and catalogue number(s) assigned;
  • Donor Release statement: "The objects listed above, when accepted by the Museum Committee, become the sole and permanent property of CDHCS of the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. This gift is subject to no restrictions or conditions. Objects may be photographed or otherwise reproduced, exhibited or studied solely at the discretion of CDHCS. Determinations of value for tax purposes is the responsibility of the donor;"
  • Donor signature and date;
    Acceptance information: indication of Museum Committee action to accept or reject donation;
    Name of recipient and date of return, if specimen is returned from CDHCS to donor.

Deaccessioning

All donations to CDHCS are irrevocable upon the formal and physical transfer to CDHCS. Subsequent to accession, if a specimen is later deemed to fall outside CDHCS guidelines for acceptance, the donor will be contacted and the specimen deaccessioned and returned to the donor.

The Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy and the P&S Comparative Anatomy skull collections are open to research by all qualified personnel. At the present time, all previous external loans have been recalled by University of the Pacific. Only limited future external loans will be considered. Loans will be assessed on their scientific merit, with priority given to maintaining the integrity of the collections.

All loan requests must be submitted in writing on institutional letterhead and addressed to:

Curator
Atkinson Collection, Center for Dental History and Craniofacial Study (CDHCS)
University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry
155 Fifth Street
San Francisco, CA 94103

 A report of research findings must be provided to the Curator at the conclusion of a research loan regardless of whether or not a formal publication results.

Imaging Restrictions: Loaned specimens may be CT scanned, photographed, X-rayed, videotaped or otherwise imaged only if separate permission is granted in advance.

Research and Teaching Loans

Faculty and Visiting Scholar Research Loans

The following information must be provided in research loan requests submitted by dental school faculty and by scholars and institutions outside of University of the Pacific:

  1. Explanation of why loan is necessary, or why doing research at CDHCS is impossible
  2. Purpose of the loan, including a paragraph defining general research hypothesis and methodology and expected results
  3. Nature of study procedure, including anatomical structures to be examined or measured
  4. Method of examination or measurement, including calipers, other osteometric devices, 3D digitizer, photographic equipment, X-ray equipment, CT scan equipment, or other
  5. Previous experience using calipers and 3D digitizer, if these instruments are to be used during your study.

Faculty Teaching/Demonstration Loans

A portion of the skull collections are available to faculty of the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry for teaching Selective classes or for short-term demonstrations in the classroom or laboratory setting. These are usually one- to two-day loans, but may be longer depending on need. On the day of the loan, the faculty member wishing to borrow specimens for class use purposes will be required to read and sign CDHCS's Faculty Teaching/Demonstration Loan form that contains the following: Instructor information: name, phone extension and e-mail address, class title and brief description, approx. class size; Specimen information: specimen catalogue number(s), juvenile or adult specimen, pre- and post-loaned condition of each specimen; Loan information: beginning and ending loan date(s), CDHCS loan approval and approval date, loan return date, brief summaries of specimen care and handling guidelines, and acknowledgement of conditions governing loans. The Faculty Teaching/Demonstration Loan form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Research Loans to Students

Loans are not made to students. Students wishing to conduct research involving specimens from the skull collections must do so at CDHCS where the collections are housed.

Exhibit Loans

A completed AAM Standard Facility Report (available for purchase on the AAM website: (under "Bookstore") is required. The following information must be described in the exhibit loan request:

  1. Purpose of the loan, including exhibit type and location;
  2. List of specimen numbers or number and types of specimens requested;
  3. Explanation of why the specimens are needed for the exhibit; and
  4. A time framework, including shipping, photography, installation and exhibition dates.

Traveling Exhibit Loans

Loans are not made for traveling exhibit purposes.

Commercial Use Loans

The borrowing of specimens for commercial or business for-profit use is limited to those projects that result in products of educational, research, or otherwise scientific value. No products incorporating or based on the borrowed specimens shall be produced without individualized contract document development and licensing approval by University of the Pacific. (See "Commercial/Business Use and Images" section for specific policy regarding images of specimens from the skull collections.) To initiate the loan procedure, the following information must be described in the commercial use loan request:

  1. Purpose of the loan, specifying all anticipated product development and product use
  2. List of specimen numbers or number and types of specimens requested
  3. Specific means of extracting product data from the specimens, including making casts, photographs, X-rays, CT scans, or other methods

Loan Limitations

Ten specimens will be the maximum loaned at any one time. Loan requests subsequent to loan of the initial ten specimens will not be automatically granted and require submission of a new loan request. Rare specimens from the collections will not be loaned under any circumstances. Loans are not made internationally.

Loan Conditions

Borrower

Loans are not made to individuals. Loans are made to non-profit, educational institutions for educational and scholarly purposes. If an individual researcher is affiliated with a museum, the loan agreement must be signed by the Director or Registrar of the receiving institution. If the individual researcher is affiliated with an academic department, the agreement must be signed by the department chairperson.

Purpose of Loan

Specimens loaned by CDHCS may not be used for any purposes other than that agreed upon. Specimens may not be lent by the Borrower or individual researcher to a third party without the written permission of CDHCS.

Schedule

All non-teaching loans require a minimum of two months to process from the time that approval is granted and a final list of specimens is determined. Teaching loan requests should be submitted at least three weeks in advance.

Loan Insurance for Loss/Damage

The Borrower is responsible for the cost of insuring all borrowed specimens (and skull boxes used for transport) from the time they leave CDHCS until the time they are returned. Prior to releasing specimens for loan, CDHCS must receive from the Borrower a Memorandum and Certificate of Insurance from a fine arts insurance policy showing wall-to-wall coverage subject to standard exclusions with no deductible. Insurance coverage through the University of the Pacific is not available for purchase by the Borrower.

A Borrower who wishes to insure objects under their own insurance coverage should submit a copy of their fine arts insurance policy listing any deductibles and exclusions for review by the University of the Pacific Office of Risk Management. This information should be submitted when the formal loan request is made.

The Certificate of Insurance must show the value of each specimen to be insured for loss or damage as follows: adult, juvenile or in utero/newborn cranium or mandible, or both - $3000; cranium or mandible, or both, of a specimen exhibiting a pathological or anomalous condition (as determined by the CDHCS Curator) — $5000. The Borrower will be charged for any damage to specimens (see below) incurred during the loan period, including fragmentation of teeth, breakage of bone, and any other form of alteration of the specimens from their original loaned condition. Damage fees will be assessed between $50 - $200 per specimen per incident, based on the severity of the damage and time required for repair by CDHCS staff.

Recall of Loan

CDHCS reserves the right to recall the loan for any reason and requires return of the recalled loan within three weeks.

Transportation/Packing/Storage

The method of transportation of loaned skulls is by hand carry only. The individual researcher, or a designated courier (CDHCS staff, or a professional courier approved by CDHCS and University of the Pacific), will hand carry the skulls to their destination. Each skull will be packed by CDHCS personnel in a loaned skull box with appropriate packing materials prior to transport. The skull boxes and packing material should be stored in appropriate facilities for preservation. The researcher will repack loans in the same or similar material. If a CDHCS staff member or outside professional is chosen as the courier, all courier expenses, including airline tickets, lodging, courier fee (for supervising unpacking, mounting, installation, de-installation, and repacking), and any other unforeseen expenditures will be paid by the Borrower. At the designated destination, the researcher will make arrangements necessary for storage of the loaned skulls in a secured room prior to and after use.

Care/Preservation

The individual researcher will protect loans from mishandling, dirt, insects, fire, theft, and extreme variations in light, temperature and humidity at all times. Loans will be handled only by the researcher and experienced professional assistants. Specimen handling will be kept to a minimum. The researcher and assistants will comply with all special handling instructions required by CDHCS in the Specimen Handling Guidelines. The researcher will not clean, repair or alter a loaned specimen (see below). CDHCS reserves the right to inspect the installation and/or use of specimens at any time.

Security

For exhibit purposes, specimens must be displayed in closed, locked cases. For research or commercial purposes, specimens must be placed in closed, locked cases, so as not to be visible when in storage.

Damage/Loss

Regardless of who is responsible, if a borrowed specimen is damaged or lost while in transit, during unpacking or packing, when being examined, measured, photographed, CT scanned, videotaped, or X-rayed, during installation or de-installation of a display, or while on display, the event must be reported immediately by telephone, fax or e-mail to the CDHCS Museum Curator. If pieces of teeth or bone are broken off the specimen, every effort must be made to recover those pieces and return them safely to CDHCS along with the specimen. The researcher may not carry out repairs without the permission of the CDHCS Museum Curator. Should any incident occur with regard to the borrowed specimen, whether or not damage is apparent, the event must be reported immediately and in writing to CDHCS.

Examination/Mounting/Installation Restrictions

No marker, pencil, pen, paint or other marks of any kind may be made on the specimens during measuring, photographing, scanning, videotaping, mounting or installing. No tape, museum wax, dental wax, glue, nails, screws, staples, wires or other materials may be placed on or into the specimens.

Exhibit Labels

If exhibited, the specimen label should include the following credit line: "Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, San Francisco, California" accompanied by the specimen's catalogue number.

Exhibit Publicity and Reproductions

While on display, specimens may be photographed for use within the exhibition space itself or for Condition reports. Permission for any other use, such as a publication, or printed or electronic promotional materials (i.e., posters, postcards, booklets, photographs, etc.), or items bearing those images (i.e., gift shop mugs, key chains, etc.), must be received in writing from CDHCS. If the researcher receives permission to make photographs for the purpose of an electronic or print publication or publicity, or item of merchandise, CDHCS requests one set of labeled photos and items for its archives. Photography by the general public is not allowed. Subjecting objects to any artificial or natural light beyond that agreed upon for display purposes requires separate permission from the CDHCS.

Catalogue/Publication/Research Findings

If a publication accompanies the exhibition or results from research, CDHCS requests two copies for its archives. CDHCS also requests copies of promotional materials that contain its specimens. If published, the specimen caption should include the following credit line: "Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, San Francisco, California" accompanied by the specimen's catalogue number. A report of research findings must be provided to CDHCS at the conclusion of a loan made for research purposes regardless of whether or not a formal publication results.

Loan Process

Loan Approval Letter and Loan Agreement

Following consideration of the initial loan request by the CDHCS Curator, and approval by the Museum Chairperson and Administration representative, the Borrower and individual researcher they represent will be notified of the approval, in writing, and provided with an invoice for administrative fees and related costs, if any. An itemized list of specimen insurance values will be included within the letter. Once the Borrower has complied with loan agreement conditions, and provided a Memorandum and Certificate of Insurance, the loan agreement will be signed by all parties. Once the loan agreement form is signed, no additions to the specimen list are permitted.

Loan Form

In addition to possible formal loan agreement documentation, on the day of the loan the researcher will sign an appropriate Loan Form that will contain, depending on which type of loan, some portion of the following information: specimen catalogue number(s); value of specimen(s); insuring party; researcher's name, phone number, affiliation and email address; brief description of the purpose of loan; proposed means of transport; anticipated date of return; age of each specimen; loaned condition of each specimen (see Loan Condition Report below); brief summaries of specimen care and handling guidelines, and acknowledgement of conditions governing loans. The Loan Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Loan Condition Report

A Loan Condition Report will be provided by the CDHCS Museum Curator within the Loan Form, at the time the loan is processed. The report will include documentation of the loaned condition of each specimen, including damaged and/or missing areas of the skull and dentition, and congenital conditions. Any changes to the conditions noted by the researcher should be reported immediately and in writing. CDHCS may require interim Loan Condition Reports in certain cases. Unless the researcher gives notice within ten working days after receipt of the loan specifying any defect in, or other objection to, the provided Loan Condition Report, the researcher agrees that it shall be conclusively presumed that the researcher has fully inspected the specimens and acknowledged that they are in the condition specified in the Loan Condition Report.

Loan Period and Renewal of Loan

Loans are generally made for a maximum of six months. Requests for renewal must be made in writing to the Curator and received 30 days before the expiration of the loan. The loan will be reviewed by the Curator, Museum Committee, and Administration representative if more than two renewal requests are submitted.

Return of Loan

The researcher agrees to return the loan only to the CDHCS Curator, by the date specified in the signed loan agreement, unless other arrangements are agreed to in advance by CDHCS.

Loan Fees

Loan Handling Fee

Research and exhibit loans are not subject to the administrative Loan Handling fee. Commercial use loans are subject to the administrative Loan Handling fee and will be charged a flat rate of $200 per specimen borrowed. This fee covers the cost of locating specimens, producing a Loan Condition report, processing forms, and packing, receiving and returning specimens to storage. Additional fees apply to commercial use loans that result in product development and distribution, as indicated in the Production of Images section.

Loan Request Cancellation Fee

Once a formal loan request has been received from a non-UOP researcher, and review by CDHCS staff has begun, if the loan request is cancelled, withdrawn or postponed indefinitely by the researcher, a Loan Request Cancellation fee of $50 will be charged to the Borrower, whether the loan request was made on behalf of a prospective research project, exhibit or for commercial use. In addition, should the commercial use Borrower cancel a loan request after a cost, such as the Loan Handling fee, has been incurred by CDHCS on behalf of the Borrower, the Borrower is responsible for that cost.

Interpretation

In the event of any conflict between this agreement and any forms of the Borrower, the terms of this agreement shall be controlling.

Research Requests

The Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy and P&S Comparative Anatomy collections are open to research by all qualified personnel. Access to the collections is by appointment only. Appointments are scheduled by the Curator upon receipt of a written statement of research objectives and data collection methods. (You may download research request form links at the bottom of this page.) All research requests must be submitted in writing on institutional letterhead and addressed to

Curator, Atkinson Collection, CDHCS
University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry
155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103.

A report of research findings must be provided to the Curator at the conclusion of a research study regardless of whether or not a formal publication results.

Dental School Faculty or Visiting Scholars

Research request forms are available online or upon request from the CDHCS curator. The following information must be provided in the research request submitted by faculty or visiting scholars:

  1. Name, current affiliation, phone number and email address
  2. Copy of curriculum vitae
  3. Letter of support from the primary faculty advisor, if in a university undergraduate or graduate program
  4. Agreement to send copies of publications, abstracts, and dissertations resulting from your study
  5. Purpose of research, including a paragraph defining general research hypothesis and methodology, types of specimens you will examine (i.e., age groups, ethnic groups, particular syndromes, pathologies, etc.)
  6. Nature of study procedure, including anatomical structures to be examined or measured
  7. Method of examination or measurement, including calipers, other osteometric devices, 3D digitizer, photographic equipment, X-ray equipment, CT scan equipment, or other
  8. Previous experience using calipers and 3D digitizer, if these instruments are to be used during your study
  9. If you plan to bring additional visitors, their names, affiliations, and what their tasks will be
    the suggested date(s) and proposed duration of your visit
  10. How you learned about the Atkinson Collection (i.e., from website, advertisement, individual or institution)

Students of the Dental School

Research request forms are available online or upon request from CDHCS. Faculty sponsorship is required for submission of a student research request. In addition to those eleven items listed above, dental school students must provide the following:

  1. Name and department of faculty sponsor
  2. Anticipated year of graduation from the University of the Pacific

Research Approval Process

For adequate review and scheduling, research requests must be submitted at least three months in advance by visiting scholars and one month in advance by dental school faculty and students. Proposed visit date(s) and study duration will be discussed at the time of research request submission to determine the feasibility of dates and times. Following consideration and approval of the research request by the CDHCS Curator, the researcher will be notified of the approval in writing.

Research Conditions

Researchers

Research permission is granted only to faculty and students of the University of the Pacific, to visiting scholars affiliated with academic institutions and to medical and dental professionals.

Research Use Form

On the day of the visit, the researcher will sign a Research Use Form that contains the following information: Researcher's name, phone number, affiliation or professional address, email address, a brief description of conditions governing research use, and a list of specimens examined. The Research Use Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Designated Research Area

Research study of the skull collections by dental school faculty, students and visiting scholars must take place at the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in CDHCS's designated research area. Special permission must be obtained to transport specimens to nearby facilities for photographing, X-raying or CT scanning.

Specimen Selection

Based on the objectives of the study and in consultation with the researcher, CDHCS Curator will set aside a specific or random sample of specimens from the skull collections. A Web-searchable database is being developed for the Atkinson Collection. As soon as it is available on line, researchers will be encouraged to access specimen information via the database to facilitate the selection process. Pre-selection of skulls using the database will minimize the visitor's need to survey the collection itself, an activity CDHCS discourages due to collection preservation concerns.

Care and Preservation

The curator will do most of the handling of the specimens, retrieving them from the storage cabinets for study and returning them after examination is completed. In this manner the potential for damage to the specimens is minimized. On the first day of the study, the researcher will be asked to read CDHCS's Procedural Advice for Handling Skulls guidelines and to sign a research form. There are no restrictions on the number of specimens available for study.

Research Fees

Currently there are no research fees charged to students and faculty, or to visiting scholars.

Teaching Requests — Off-Site Location

The Comparative Anatomy Collection and a subset of specimens from the Atkinson Collection are available to University of the Pacific faculty for teaching and class demonstrations located away from CDHCS but within the dental school building. These requests should follow instructions found in Loan Requests, Faculty Teaching/Demonstration Loans section of this document. To allow adequate time for retrieving specimens and completing a Loan Condition Report, loan requests for teaching outside CDHCS must be submitted at least three weeks in advance to the CDHCS curator.

Teaching Conditions

Use of specimens from the skull collections must take place within designated teaching areas, such as laboratories and classrooms. On the day of the class, the Instructor will be asked to read CDHCS's Procedural Advice for Handling Skulls guidelines and to sign the Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan form (see below). In order to minimize potential damage to the specimens, Instructors are expected to provide supervision for student handling of specimens or to read the handling guidelines to the class. Before and after the class, the specimens must be kept behind locked doors, usually in the Instructor's office, before being returned to CDHCS. As indicated in the loan form, Instructors are responsible for the safekeeping of specimens borrowed from the skull collections.

Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan Form

On the day of the loan, the Faculty Instructor will sign the Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan Form containing the following information: loan number, instructor's name, phone extension, department and email address, title of class, approximate class size, beginning and ending loan dates, CDHCS approval and date, age of each borrowed specimen, loaned condition of each specimen (see Loan Condition Report below), brief summaries of specimen care and handling guidelines, and acknowledgement of conditions governing loans. The Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Loan Condition Report

A Loan Condition Report will be provided by CDHCS Curator within the Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan Form, at the time the loan is processed. The report will include documentation of the loaned condition of each specimen, including damaged and/or missing areas of the skull and dentition, and congenital conditions. By signing the Loan Form, the Instructor agrees that it shall be conclusively presumed that the borrowed specimens are in the condition specified in the Loan Condition Report.

Teaching Requests — CDHCS Location

Using specimens from the skull collections for teaching and class demonstrations within CDHCS is possible. Space for display and viewing is limited by the size of the research table (5'x10') and the room. However, for large classes, groups of 20-25 students may be rotated in and out of the room. Requests for specimens should be made to CDHCS curator at least three weeks in advance.

Teaching Conditions

Along with their request for teaching access, Instructors should submit either a list of specimens or a description of the types of specimens of interest to the class. CDHCS curator will handle the specimens, retrieving them from the storage cabinets for display and returning them after the class is over. In this manner the potential for damage is minimized. On the day of the class, the Instructor will be asked to read CDHCS's Procedural Advice for Handling Skulls guidelines and to sign the Faculty On-Site Teaching/Demo form (see below). At the onset of the demonstration, Instructors are to advise the students of the delicate and invaluable nature of the specimens and to request that they refrain from excessive handling of the specimens.

Faculty On-Site Teaching/Demo Form

On the day of the loan, the Faculty Instructor will sign the Faculty On-Site Teaching/Demo Loan Form containing the following information: instructor's name, phone extension, department, title of class, approximate class size, beginning and ending course dates, CDHCS approval and date, description of each borrowed specimen, pre-class condition of each specimen (see Condition Report below), brief summaries of specimen care and handling guidelines, and acknowledgement of conditions governing loans. The Faculty Teaching/Demo Loan Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Condition Report

A Condition Report will be provided by CDHCS curator within the Faculty On-Site Teaching/Demo Form, at the time the form is processed and signed. The report will include documentation of the pre-class condition of each specimen, including damaged and/or missing areas of the skull and dentition, and congenital conditions. By signing the Faculty On-Site Teaching/Demo Form, the Instructor agrees that it shall be conclusively presumed that the specimens used in the class are in the condition specified in the Condition Report.

Online Collection Database: In Progress

An online database constituting detailed information on individuals (>1400) from the Atkinson Collection is in progress. The database will incorporate: 1) previously catalogued specimen descriptions and provenience notations made by Dr. Spencer R. Atkinson between 1919 and 1963; 2) anomalous and pathological anatomical conditions and 3) current entries of cranial and dental specifics, including dental age estimates, and digital photos for a select number of individuals.

Terms and Conditions of Use

By accessing or using Atkinson Collection data, the user will agree to the following conditions:

  1. Except as otherwise expressly stated herein, the information, records, or images in this database may not be downloaded, reproduced, distributed, or publicly displayed, in whole or in part, without the express written permission of CDHCS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry.
  2. Subsets of the information, records, or images in the database may be downloaded, reproduced, publicly displayed, distributed, or reprinted strictly for educational, scientific, scholarly, and other non-profit uses provided that the following attribution appears in all copies: "Information provided with the permission of CDHCS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, 155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103."
  3. Subsets of the records from the database downloaded for use with data from other datasets must carry the attribution of CDHCS.
  4. Data are provided on an end-user basis — that is, data are provided to users but should not be passed on to third parties or redistributed, except with approval from CDHCS.
  5. While every effort is made to provide accurate information, use of this database is entirely at your own risk. CDHCS makes no warranty, either express or implied, regarding the completeness, accuracy, or currency of the information in the database or its suitability for any particular purpose. Where the use of this data is critical to scientific investigation, scholarly publication, or policy decisions, the user is responsible for verifying specimen information against specimens and other primary data sources.
  6. These materials are provided "AS IS" for your informational purposes only. CDHCS is not responsible for the consequences of reliance on any information contained in the database, and the risk of injury rests entirely with the user.
  7. Information in the database must not be regarded as definite or published. Cranial or dental pathologies, anomalies or other conditions, individual dental age estimates, and other such data should be verified by specimen inspection in consultation with CDHCS curator.
  8. Occasionally, information in CDHCS database may be changed or updated. For this reason, all downloaded data will include a field with the date and time of the download. If you discover data you consider in error, please contact CDHCS curator with the relevant information.
  9. Within some research frameworks, this database alone may be inadequate for providing accurate determinations. In such cases, this database should be considered supplemental to study of the actual specimens. Researchers planning projects needing long-term access to the data are encouraged to work with CDHCS staff to develop live access to the data rather than downloading it.
  10. By accessing the information in the database, you agree that CDHCS shall not be liable to you for any loss or injury caused in using, compiling, or delivering the information. In no event will CDHCS or the contributors of information to the database be liable to you or anyone else for any action taken in reliance on such information or for any consequential, special, or similar damages.

Images of Specimens

Currently, a limited number of photographs, CT scans and X-rays exist of specimens from the skull collections. Pending funding, CDHCS will increase the sample of digital photographs and CT scans and make them available for research and teaching.

Archival Image Access

Rights and Reproduction Policies

CDHCS retains all reproduction rights for its photographs, CT scans, and X-rays. Requests for permission to publish, electronically transmit, or publicly display in exhibits images supplied by CDHCS from its archives must be submitted on the Reproduction Use Permissions Request Form. In addition, the user must provide a written document explaining the context in which images will be used. Permission is granted for one-time use only. CDHCS must receive a copy of any publication, brochure or other materials containing these archival images at no charge.

Reproduction Use and Duplication Services Fees

To help defray the administrative costs of duplication services, a use fee will be charged in addition to the materials costs associated with producing duplicate copies. As determined by CDHCS, reproduction use fees may be waived for non-profit or scholarly use by individuals. An additional letter, detailing the use of the requested archival image(s), as well as proof of non-profit status, may be required.

Reproduction Use Fees — Per Image

Commercial use is subject to approval by CDHCS. Listed below are minimum fees. Fees are for one-time use.

Editorial Use  
Scholarly — individuals: Publications, dissertations $0
Scholarly — press related: Print or electronic media (editorial, periodical or newspaper), television program, film, website $35
Non-Profit Business $35
Government Agencies $35
Commercial — individual/business: Print or electronic media, television program, film, website $85
Exhibition Use  
For-Profit — individual/business $130
Non-Profit — business/institution $35
Internet, Website Use  
Individual/business/agency/institution To be negotiated
Duplication Services Fees — Per Image or Image Series

Pending funding, digital CT scan image series and digital photographs of a portion of the skull collections will become available for research and teaching purposes.

When available, digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox.

Atkinson Collection Images on forensicosteology.org

The University of the Pacific maintains a partnership with developers of the FOROST metabase to provide images and documentation of specimens as reference material for forensic osteologists and related professionals. Found at the forensicosteology.org Web site are 100 digital images and accompanying descriptions of 29 Atkinson Collection individuals that exhibit evidence of trauma to the skull.

Forensicosteology.org Atkinson Collection Image Availability and Pricing

Higher-resolution copies of the Atkinson Collection images found in the FOROST metabase are available from CDHCS for teaching, presentation or publication purposes. Currently, CDHCS does not provide services for online purchase and distribution of these images. Therefore, digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox. Purchase prices given below cover staff time and incidental costs.

Individual image: $20
Complete set of 43 images: $215
Additional charges per order:
Sales tax: Add 8.75% (required for all purchases)

Other Skull Digital Image Sets for Teaching

See below under "Teaching and Images" for descriptions and pricing.

Image Production

Scholarly Research and Images

Specimens from the skull collections are available, on a selective basis, for photographing, CT scanning, X-raying or videotaping, in relation to research study of the collection. A PDF of each relevant publication or an abstract of each presentation resulting from the study must be sent to CDHCS for the museum archives. In addition, if the skull  images are used in a Master's or Ph.D. dissertation, a copy of the dissertation must be sent, upon completion, to the Curator, Atkinson Collection, CDHCS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, 155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103.

Image production is permitted with the following restrictions: Specimens may be CT scanned, photographed, X-rayed, videotaped or otherwise imaged only for the purposes of illustrating academic publications or presentations. Images may not be given to a third party without written permission from CDHCS.

Image Use Form

On the day of the visit, the researcher taking images of specimens from the skull collections will sign the Image Use Form that contains the following information: Researcher's name, phone number, affiliation or professional address, email address, a brief description of conditions governing image use, and a list of specimens photographed, CT scanned, X-rayed or videotaped. The Image Use Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Teaching and Images

Three teaching sets illustrating craniofacial trauma, congenital craniofacial and related disorders, and dental anomalies and pathological conditions of the jaw found in specimens from the Atkinson Collection are available for purchase as digital images from CDHCS. These images may not be reproduced or used for research, exhibit or commercial production without specific written permission of CDHCS. Duplication services costs are built in to the fee schedule given below. Image descriptions and fees are as follows:

Teaching Image Sets

Set I: Craniofacial Trauma

This set of 100 Atkinson Collection digital images is now available for viewing at forensicosteology.org (see purchase pricing above at Forensicosteology.org Atkinson Collection Image Pricing section). These images illustrate the effects of trauma on bony morphology, providing examples of healed, unreduced craniofacial trauma at the following fracture sites: nasal, zygomatic, maxillary, pterygoid, occipital, mandibular condyle, cranial. Examples of secondary infection are shown. Each image is accompanied by descriptive information on the specimen.

Set II: Congenital Craniofacial and Related Disorders

This set of 60 digital images is ideal for discussing concepts of craniofacial growth and development and the morphology of particular syndromes. Featured are examples of untreated cases of microcephaly, hydrocephaly, bicoronal, lambdoidal and sagittal synostoses, hemifacial microsomia, microphthalmia, and complete and partial cleft palate, among others. Most cases are presented in more than one standard view. Radiographs of a subset of cases are also included. This image set is accompanied by descriptive information on individual specimens and their conditions.

Set III: Dental Anomalies and Pathological Conditions of the Jaws

Designed to illustrate both congenital and pathological conditions of the teeth, occlusion and jaws, this set of 51 digital images is excellent for instruction in dental anthropology and anatomy laboratories. Subjects include the appearance of teeth in cleft palate individuals, malocclusion and dental crowding (underbite, overbite, edge to edge and other absolutely incredible forms), disturbance in tooth formation (number, crown form, root morphology, enamel hypoplasia), disturbance in tooth position (ectopic eruption, transposition, impaction, retention of deciduous dentition) and disease (periapical abscess, excessive tartar accumulation and degenerative joint changes). This image set is accompanied by descriptive information discussing each slide.

Teaching Image Sets: Pricing

Digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox. Purchase prices given below cover staff time and materials costs.

Pricing for purchase of one or two sets, as follows:

Set II 60 digital images $300
Set III 51 digital images $255
Sets II and III 111 digital images $445
Additional Charges per Order

Sales tax: Add 8.75% (required for all purchases)

Exhibits and Images

Photographs, CT scans, X-rays and videos of specimens from the skull collections may not be used in an exhibit without the specific written permission of CDHCS. Use of images for promotional materials (i.e., posters, postcards, booklets, photographs, etc.) related to an exhibit, or items bearing those images (i.e., gift shop mugs, key chains, etc.), also requires explicit written permission from CDHCS.

Commercial/Business Use and Images

CDHCS has developed explicit policy and fees relating to the borrowing of specimens from the skull collections for the purpose of producing images for commercial or business use. Fees are for one-time, non-exclusive use, world rights, in one language only. With respect to electronic media, "one-time use" means that once an electronic product has been published, distributed or exhibited, you may not subsequently reformat, redesign, or otherwise alter the disk or screens on which the image appears, nor re-use the image in other products, nor allow others to use it. Similar restrictions and fees apply to the on-site capturing of images (photographs, CT scans, X-rays or videotaping) or the use of Available Image Reproductions (see below) for commercial or business purposes. Copyright of all images taken by the commercial/business use entity or provided by CDHCS to that entity is held by the University of the Pacific. Image production for commercial/business use is permitted with the following requirements and restrictions:

  1. Image reproduction rights or rights for commercial products using the images are subject to approval by the University of the Pacific and a formal licensing agreement may be required (Licensing Contractual Agreement).
  2. If a licensing agreement is required, the following restrictions and fees will apply:
    1. An imaging license will be issued on a one-time-use basis per product developed from the image(s);
    2. A one-time-use fee of $500 will be charged for each new over-the-counter distributed or each new Web distributed product containing the images;
    3. A digital image copy or product sample developed from images will be sent to CDHCS no more than two weeks after the image or product has been produced;
    4. CDHCS will retain the right to distribute copies of all images at the Institute's discretion;
    5. The University of the Pacific will receive a negotiated percentage of the sales of any single image or product developed from images of specimens from the skull collections;
    6. Free copies of images or samples of products may be distributed only if the equivalent negotiated percentage of sales is forwarded to the University of the Pacific;
    7. The commercial/business use entity will not acquire images from the skull collections for the purpose of serving as a repository for the distribution of those images, and all distribution rights will be retained by CDHCS;
    8. Negotiations regarding requests for images from for-profit third parties will require additional licensing through the University of the Pacific.
  3. Use of the images shall not be to show or imply University of the Pacific endorsement of any commercial product or enterprise, or indicate that the University concurs with the opinions expressed in, or confirms the accuracy of any text used with, these images.

Archival Image Access
Rights and Reproduction Policies

CDHCS retains all reproduction rights for the photographs and documents within its dental history collections. Requests for permission to duplicate, publish, electronically transmit, or publicly display in exhibits images supplied by CDHCS from its archives must be submitted on the Reproduction Use Permissions Request Form. In addition, the User must provide a written document explaining the context in which images will be used. Permission is granted for one-time use only. CDHCS must receive one copy of any publication, brochure or other materials containing these archival images at no charge.

Reproduction Use and Duplication Services Fees

To help defray the administrative costs of duplication services, a use fee will be charged in addition to the materials costs associated with producing duplicate copies. As determined by CDHCS, reproduction use fees may be waived for non-profit or scholarly use by individuals. An additional letter, detailing the use of the requested archival image(s), as well as proof of non-profit status, may be required.

Copyright Restrictions

As applicable, copyright restrictions and rights will be enforced with regard to reproduction and use of archival materials housed in CDHCS's dental history collections.

Reproduction Use Fees — Per Image

Commercial use is subject to approval by CDHCS. Listed below are minimum fees. Fees are for a one-time use.

Editorial Use  
Scholarly — individuals: publications, dissertations $0
Scholarly — press-related: print or electronic media (editorial, periodical or newspaper), television program, film, website $35
Non-profit business $35
Government agencies $35
Commercial — individual/business: print or electronic media, television program, film, website $85
Exhibition Use  
For-profit — individual/business $130
Non-profit — business/institution $35
Internet, Website Use  
Individual/business/agency/institution To be negotiated
Duplication Services Fees — Per Image

Digital images of photographs or documents will be scanned from originals and provided electronically through DropBox. Purchase prices given below cover staff time and incidental costs. 

Digital image scanned from existing photo print (5x7" or 8x10"): 300 DPI $30
  1200 DPI $40
Digital images scanned from existing letters (8.5x11"): 300 DPI $30
  1200 DPI $45
Digital images scanned from existing large documents (up to 11x17"): 300 DPI $45
  1200 DPI $50
Digital images scanned from existing documents larger than 11x17":    
Image Use
Scholarly Research and Images

If artifact images from the dental history collections are used in scholarly publications, a PDF or reprint of each relevant publication or an abstract of each presentation using an image must be sent to CDHCS for the museum archives. In addition, if an image is used in a Master's or Ph.D. dissertation, a PDF of the dissertation must be sent, upon completion, to the Curator, Ward Museum, CDHCS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, 155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103. Image production is permitted with the following requirements and restrictions:

  1. Artifact images are to be used only for the purposes of illustrating academic publications or presentations.
  2. Photographs, CT scans, X-rays or videotapes may not be reproduced for distribution (or otherwise distributed) to others or used for commercial purposes without specific written permission of CDHCS.
  3. Any academic publication or presentation that uses these images must acknowledge the Center for Dental History and Craniofacial Study, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry.
Exhibits/Commercial Use and Images

Use of images in exhibits or for commercial purposes require special permission for processing and requests are subject to approval by the University of the Pacific and CDHCS.

In-Kind Donations

The dental history collections of CDHCS contain over 2000 accessioned documents, photographs and artifacts acquired through in-kind donations from alumni of the dental school and other interested parties.

Acquisition Guidelines

Due to space restrictions in the new Fifth Street building, CDHCS cannot accept in-kind donations, such as those listed below, to the Ward Museum of Dentistry:

Large Dental Operatory and Lab Pieces: Chairs, dental units, X-ray units, cabinets, distributing panels, photographic units, desks, storage cabinets, lab benches, foot powered drills

Medium-Sized Equipment: Furnaces, compressors, casting machines, vulcanizers, vacuum pumps, anesthetic devices, sterilizers, dental engines, lamps, cameras, X-ray tubes, spittoons, amalgamators, swages, die plates, crown presses, denture presses, articulators, mold or shade guides, dental porcelain crowns, tooth forms

To complement the Ward Museum's existing collections, CDHCS will continue to accept donations of dentures, instruments, toothbrushes and other small period pieces for future displays. Acceptance of these pieces will be based on photographs previewed by the curator prior to donation. Documents and photographs relating to the history of the school and its graduates are welcome donations, as we continue building the College of Physicians and Surgeons Historical Society Collection. (As an alternative to donation, the Institute will return to its owners any documents or photos loaned to us for scanning.)

All acquisitions are to be outright and unconditional. Federal law prevents CDHCS from providing identification services or appraisal values for donated items. Donors are responsible for appraisals of value.

Accession Process

Accession Record

Upon receipt, the donation will be examined and described for accessioning purposes in an Accession Record. The donor will receive a copy of the Accession Record containing the following:

  • Acquisition information: date recorded, CDHCS recorder's name, method of delivery of artifact to CDHCS;
  • Donor information: donor's name, address, phone number and email address;
  • Donation information: description of artifact, documentation relating to history of the artifact, accession number(s) assigned;
  • Donor Release statement: "The objects listed above, when accepted by CDHCS Museum Committee, become the sole and permanent property of CDHCS of the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. This gift is subject to no restrictions or conditions. Objects may be photographed or otherwise reproduced, exhibited or studied solely at the discretion of CDHCS. Determinations of value for tax purposes is the responsibility of the donor;"
  • Donor signature and date;
  • Acceptance information: indication of CDHCS's Museum Committee action to accept or reject donation (items not directly relevant to dental history may not be accepted);
  • name of recipient and date of return, if specimen is returned from CDHCS to the donor.

Deaccessioning

All donations to CDHCS are irrevocable upon their formal and physical transfer to CDHCS.

Spencer R. Atkinson Library of Applied Anatomy Collection

Q: How do I apply to study the skull collection?

Applications are available to students, faculty and other qualified professionals who wish to study the collection. See Forms section of this page.

Q: What skeletal elements does the collection consist of?

The collection consists only of human cranial material. Individuals may be represented by skulls, crania or mandibles.

Q: How many skulls are in the collection?

There are approximately 1,500 skulls in the collection.

Q: What are the age ranges represented in the skull collection, and how is the individual's age at death determined?

The collection has good-sized samples of the stages of growth, from in utero to old age. Age categories based on dental eruption patterns are, approximately, as follows:

  • 50 individuals — fetal/newborn (no teeth erupted)
  • 7 individuals — 1 to 17 months (no deciduous molars erupted)
  • 185 individuals — 18 months to 5 years (dM1 erupting, to dM1, dM2 fully erupted)
  • 155 individuals — 6 to 11 years (M1 erupting to M2 just erupting)
  • 120 individuals — 12 to 18 years (M2 erupted/M3 erupting to fully erupted)
  • 900 adult individuals (adult dentition fully erupted/last molar worn)
  • 25 geriatric individuals (edentulous)

Q: Is there area-of-geographic-origin information known for the collection?

The following areas of origin are represented in the collection: Mexico (n=201 crania), India (n=24), Europe (n=23), Peru (n=10), Asia (n=6), Australia/New Zealand (n=7).

Q: Is it possible to borrow skulls from the collection?

Loans are permitted only for special circumstances. See the Collections Policy section for additional information.

Q: What is the history of the collection?

In the 1920s, Dr. Spencer R. Atkinson, an internationally renowned orthodontist, began accumulating skulls for research purposes. The collection passed to the University of the Pacific in 1964. 

Q: What research has been done using the collection?

A list of citations resulting from study of the collection is available here.

Forms

Applications are available to students, faculty and other qualified professionals who wish to study the collection.