Images of Specimens from the Skull Collections

Images of Specimens

Currently, a limited number of photographs, CT scans and X-rays exist of specimens from the skull collections. Pending funding, CDHCS will increase the sample of digital photographs and CT scans and make them available for research and teaching.

Archival Image Access
Rights and Reproduction Policies

CDHCS retains all reproduction rights for its photographs, CT scans, and X-rays. Requests for permission to publish, electronically transmit, or publicly display in exhibits images supplied by CDHCS from its archives must be submitted on the Reproduction Use Permissions Request Form. In addition, the user must provide a written document explaining the context in which images will be used. Permission is granted for one-time use only. CDHCS must receive a copy of any publication, brochure or other materials containing these archival images at no charge.

Reproduction Use and Duplication Services Fees

To help defray the administrative costs of duplication services, a use fee will be charged in addition to the materials costs associated with producing duplicate copies. As determined by CDHCS, reproduction use fees may be waived for non-profit or scholarly use by individuals. An additional letter, detailing the use of the requested archival image(s), as well as proof of non-profit status, may be required.

Reproduction Use Fees — Per Image

Commercial use is subject to approval by CDHCS. Listed below are minimum fees. Fees are for one-time use.

Editorial Use  
Scholarly — individuals: Publications, dissertations $0
Scholarly — press related: Print or electronic media (editorial, periodical or newspaper), television program, film, website $35
Non-Profit Business $35
Government Agencies $35
Commercial — individual/business: Print or electronic media, television program, film, website $85
Exhibition Use  
For-Profit — individual/business $130
Non-Profit — business/institution $35
Internet, Website Use  
Individual/business/agency/institution To be negotiated
Duplication Services Fees — Per Image or Image Series

Pending funding, digital CT scan image series and digital photographs of a portion of the skull collections will become available for research and teaching purposes.

When available, digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox.

Atkinson Collection Images on

The University of the Pacific maintains a partnership with developers of the FOROST metabase to provide images and documentation of specimens as reference material for forensic osteologists and related professionals. Found at the Web site are 100 digital images and accompanying descriptions of 29 Atkinson Collection individuals that exhibit evidence of trauma to the skull. Atkinson Collection Image Availability and Pricing

Higher-resolution copies of the Atkinson Collection images found in the FOROST metabase are available from CDHCS for teaching, presentation or publication purposes. Currently, CDHCS does not provide services for online purchase and distribution of these images. Therefore, digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox. Purchase prices given below cover staff time and incidental costs.

Individual image: $20
Complete set of 43 images: $215
Additional charges per order:
Sales tax: Add 8.75% (required for all purchases)

Other Skull Digital Image Sets for Teaching

See below under "Teaching and Images" for descriptions and pricing.

Image Production
Scholarly Research and Images

Specimens from the skull collections are available, on a selective basis, for photographing, CT scanning, X-raying or videotaping, in relation to research study of the collection. A PDF of each relevant publication or an abstract of each presentation resulting from the study must be sent to CDHCS for the museum archives. In addition, if the skull  images are used in a Master's or Ph.D. dissertation, a copy of the dissertation must be sent, upon completion, to the Curator, Atkinson Collection, CDHCS, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, 155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103.

Image production is permitted with the following restrictions: Specimens may be CT scanned, photographed, X-rayed, videotaped or otherwise imaged only for the purposes of illustrating academic publications or presentations. Images may not be given to a third party without written permission from CDHCS.

Image Use Form

On the day of the visit, the researcher taking images of specimens from the skull collections will sign the Image Use Form that contains the following information: Researcher's name, phone number, affiliation or professional address, email address, a brief description of conditions governing image use, and a list of specimens photographed, CT scanned, X-rayed or videotaped. The Image Use Form serves as a means of efficient recordkeeping for CDHCS.

Teaching and Images

Three teaching sets illustrating craniofacial trauma, congenital craniofacial and related disorders, and dental anomalies and pathological conditions of the jaw found in specimens from the Atkinson Collection are available for purchase as digital images from CDHCS. These images may not be reproduced or used for research, exhibit or commercial production without specific written permission of CDHCS. Duplication services costs are built in to the fee schedule given below. Image descriptions and fees are as follows:

Teaching Image Sets
Set I: Craniofacial Trauma

This set of 100 Atkinson Collection digital images is now available for viewing at (see purchase pricing above at Atkinson Collection Image Pricing section). These images illustrate the effects of trauma on bony morphology, providing examples of healed, unreduced craniofacial trauma at the following fracture sites: nasal, zygomatic, maxillary, pterygoid, occipital, mandibular condyle, cranial. Examples of secondary infection are shown. Each image is accompanied by descriptive information on the specimen.

Set II: Congenital Craniofacial and Related Disorders

This set of 60 digital images is ideal for discussing concepts of craniofacial growth and development and the morphology of particular syndromes. Featured are examples of untreated cases of microcephaly, hydrocephaly, bicoronal, lambdoidal and sagittal synostoses, hemifacial microsomia, microphthalmia, and complete and partial cleft palate, among others. Most cases are presented in more than one standard view. Radiographs of a subset of cases are also included. This image set is accompanied by descriptive information on individual specimens and their conditions.

Set III: Dental Anomalies and Pathological Conditions of the Jaws

Designed to illustrate both congenital and pathological conditions of the teeth, occlusion and jaws, this set of 51 digital images is excellent for instruction in dental anthropology and anatomy laboratories. Subjects include the appearance of teeth in cleft palate individuals, malocclusion and dental crowding (underbite, overbite, edge to edge and other absolutely incredible forms), disturbance in tooth formation (number, crown form, root morphology, enamel hypoplasia), disturbance in tooth position (ectopic eruption, transposition, impaction, retention of deciduous dentition) and disease (periapical abscess, excessive tartar accumulation and degenerative joint changes). This image set is accompanied by descriptive information discussing each slide.

Teaching Image Sets: Pricing

Digital images will be provided electronically through Dropbox. Purchase prices given below cover staff time and materials costs.

Pricing for purchase of one or two sets, as follows:

Set II 60 digital images $300
Set III 51 digital images $255
Sets II and III 111 digital images $445
Additional Charges per Order

Sales tax: Add 8.75% (required for all purchases)

Exhibits and Images

Photographs, CT scans, X-rays and videos of specimens from the skull collections may not be used in an exhibit without the specific written permission of CDHCS. Use of images for promotional materials (i.e., posters, postcards, booklets, photographs, etc.) related to an exhibit, or items bearing those images (i.e., gift shop mugs, key chains, etc.), also requires explicit written permission from CDHCS.

Commercial/Business Use and Images

CDHCS has developed explicit policy and fees relating to the borrowing of specimens from the skull collections for the purpose of producing images for commercial or business use. Fees are for one-time, non-exclusive use, world rights, in one language only. With respect to electronic media, "one-time use" means that once an electronic product has been published, distributed or exhibited, you may not subsequently reformat, redesign, or otherwise alter the disk or screens on which the image appears, nor re-use the image in other products, nor allow others to use it. Similar restrictions and fees apply to the on-site capturing of images (photographs, CT scans, X-rays or videotaping) or the use of Available Image Reproductions (see below) for commercial or business purposes. Copyright of all images taken by the commercial/business use entity or provided by CDHCS to that entity is held by the University of the Pacific. Image production for commercial/business use is permitted with the following requirements and restrictions:

  1. Image reproduction rights or rights for commercial products using the images are subject to approval by the University of the Pacific and a formal licensing agreement may be required (Licensing Contractual Agreement).
  2. If a licensing agreement is required, the following restrictions and fees will apply:
    1. An imaging license will be issued on a one-time-use basis per product developed from the image(s);
    2. A one-time-use fee of $500 will be charged for each new over-the-counter distributed or each new Web distributed product containing the images;
    3. A digital image copy or product sample developed from images will be sent to CDHCS no more than two weeks after the image or product has been produced;
    4. CDHCS will retain the right to distribute copies of all images at the Institute's discretion;
    5. The University of the Pacific will receive a negotiated percentage of the sales of any single image or product developed from images of specimens from the skull collections;
    6. Free copies of images or samples of products may be distributed only if the equivalent negotiated percentage of sales is forwarded to the University of the Pacific;
    7. The commercial/business use entity will not acquire images from the skull collections for the purpose of serving as a repository for the distribution of those images, and all distribution rights will be retained by CDHCS;
    8. Negotiations regarding requests for images from for-profit third parties will require additional licensing through the University of the Pacific.
  3. Use of the images shall not be to show or imply University of the Pacific endorsement of any commercial product or enterprise, or indicate that the University concurs with the opinions expressed in, or confirms the accuracy of any text used with, these images.